Summarizing the Steps and Moving On
In the statistical tests we’ve calculated (the t-test, correlation, andX2), we’ve gone through a series of steps that you’ll go through when you compute any statistical test.
Recapping, here they are:
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Congratulate yourself. The fact that you understand these steps and can execute them shows how far you’ve come. You now have a good grip on basic statistics. You can understand them in research journals, and you can use them in your practicum and in your own research. And you are now in a position to go on to more advanced statistics (I know you can’t wait).
I have not provided a set of references because there are literally dozens of introductory statistics texts, and just about any of them will do. You definitely should have one of these texts for reference purposes, especially for the significance tables they all provide. My favorite, and the one I highly recommend, is Neil Salkind's Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics. Sage Publications, 2000.
This short course has taken you through both the explanation of the major statistical concepts and the actual computation of the most common statistical tests you will be encountering in the research literature and using in your own research.
Now that you have this essential, basic understanding, you won’t need to do any computations by hand. There are software applications that will do that for you. Once you enter the data, they will compute a correlation in less than a second, and provide you with the significance levels.
There are a number of such programs. You can, in fact, do a number of statistical tests with Microsoft Excel, which is mainly a spreadsheet program. And many of you probably have this application on your computers, either as a stand-alone program or as part of Microsoft Office.
But one of the most highly regarded and user friendly statistical programs is GB-STAT, so if you don’t already have such a program, this would be a good one to get.
Good luck in all your research endeavors.